Using English vocabulary Lesson twelve Everyday Things

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Using English vocabulary
Lesson twelve
Everyday Things

A – things we do every day

Every day I (wake up, get up, go to the bathroom, have a shower, listen to the radio, go to work, come home, make dinner, phone(or call) a friend, watch TV, go to bed)

B – sometimes

I (wash clothes, clean the house, go for a walk, write letters)

C - Questions about everyday things

How often do you read the newspaper / watch TV? Three times a week / every day, etc.
What time do you get up / go to work? Seven o'clock. / Half past eight. etc.
How do you go to work? By bus/train/car, etc.

D - Usually/normally (what I do typically)

We say I usually/normally get up at eight o'clock, but today I got up at eight-thirty.
[NOT I used to / I'm used to get up at eight o'clock]


Using English vocabulary Lesson eleven Phrasal verbs

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Using English vocabulary
Lesson eleven
Phrasal verbs

A - What are phrasal verbs?

Phrasal verbs have two parts: a verb + a preposition
get up/on/over
I got up at 6.30 this morning. I'm tired now.
I hated my sister when I was young but now we get on very well.
He soon got over his cold. (= he got better quickly)
turn on/off/up/down
He always turns on the TV at 9 o'clock to watch the news.
It's a sunny day. Turn the light off.
Turn the TV up. I can't hear it.
Turn the TV down. It's too loud.
go on/off
Don't stop. Go on talking. It's very interesting.
A bomb went off in a London station today. Four people
are still in hospital.
put something on
It's cold and windy outside. Put your coat on. or Put on your coat.
come on
Come on! We're late.

B - One phrasal verb, different meanings

Note that one phrasal verb can often have different meanings.
turn down
She turned down the stereo. (= made it not so loud)
She turned down the invitation. (= refused it)
do up
She did up her coat(closed it with a zip)
She did up her flat. (painted it)
take off
Our plane takes off at 12.30. (= leaves the ground)
She took off her shoes. (= removed them from her feet

Tip: Make a special page in your notebook. Write down any phrasal verbs you see or
hear.



Using Get/got/got

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Using English vocabulary
Lesson ten
Using Get/got/got

A – Get with adjectives : for changes

It's light, it's getting dark, it's dark
It's getting dark (it's about to be dark)
I'm getting tired. I want to go bed
It's raining! I'm getting wet!

B - Get with nouns

If you don't have something you can get it.
I want to send a postcard. I have to get a stamp.
I've finished my studies. Now I want to get a job.
My friend is ill! Please get a doctor.
Do you want! a drink? I can get some coffee.
I'm going to the shop to get a newspaper.
Where can I get a taxi?

C - Get to (arrive at I reach a place)

How can I get to the airport? Take the airport bus at the bus station.
When you get to New York, ring me. OK, give me your number.

D - Other phrases with get

Maria and David are getting married in April. ,.
When you get back from Hong Kong, ring me= (return, come back) ,
When I get home, I have my lunch.
I get there at 6 o'clock, so please ring me at 6.30

Using Bring/brought/brought

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Using English vocabulary
Lesson nine
Using Bring/brought/brought

A- Bring and take

take = from here to there
bring = from there to here
Are you going to school? Take your books. (from here to the school)
Are you going to the kitchen? Can you bring me a glass? (from the kitchen to here)

B - Bring somebody something

A: I've brought you some apples from
my garden. B: Oh, thank you!
When she visits me, she always brings
me flowers.

C - Bring something back

it's raining. You can take my umbrella and bring it back tomorrow.
TOM: This book is interesting.
ANN: Please take it with you and read it.
TOM: Thanks. I'll bring it back on Friday.
ANN: OK. No problem.

Different Using of Come

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Using English vocabulary
Lesson eight
Different Using of Come
Come/came/come

A - Come in/out

We say 'Come in!' when someone knocks at the door of a room.
Then the person who knocked comes into the room.

B - Come back and come home

Come back means 'return to this place here'.
She went away for three days. She came back yesterday. (She is here again.)
Come back is often used with from.
They came back from Italy yesterday.
Come home is similar; 'home' is 'here' for the person speaking.
MOTHER: What time did you come home last night?
ANNE: Oh, about eleven o'clock.
MOTHER: What! Eleven! That's much too late

C - Other important uses of come

A :What country do you come from?
B: I'm from Norway. (or 1come from Norway. or I'm Norwegian.)
We're going to a disco tonight. Do you want to come along? (= come with us)
Come and see me some time. (= visit me)
Tip: Write down any prepositions you find with come every time you see them

John Hearon’s Long Walk

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 John Hearon’s Long Walk



It was shortly after midnight on February 4, 1956, when 38-year-old John Hearon drove his bus out of the station in Tucumcari, New Mexico. He was starting his regular 226-mile trip to Amarillo, Texas, and back.
Snow was falling heavily, but Hearon had made the trip 208 times before without difficulty, and he guessed it would stop soon. That part of the country seldom had bad storms. The wind was piling the snow into drifts on the road, however, and Hearon didn’t arrive in Amarillo until four o’clock in the morning. This was later than usual, but in plenty of time for the return trip.
He had coffee, checked his passengers were called to begin the trip to Tucumcari. Nine men and four women, one carrying a 21-month-old baby, came a board. At 5:30 Hearon was passing through the deserted, snow-covered city streets. By the time he reached Highway 66, most of the passengers had begun to doze a little.
The snow and wind were getting stronger, and the bus moved along at 20 miles an hour, sometimes less, until nine o’clock. “Then,” Hearon says, “I started to ease the bus through a drift that was deeper than I thought – actually, it was four feet deep. I tried to back out, but the wheels skidded and the rear end of the bus slipped off the road. We were stuck. The men got out and tried to push, but the bus wouldn’t budge.”
Highway 66
Neither Hearon nor the passengers were immediately worried. Highway 66, the main east-west road through the Southwest, received more care and attention than any other road in the whole area. Help would come, perhaps within minutes.
Hearon and his passengers could not know that a blizzard had hit Highway 66 and was making snow-clearing machinery useless. The lives of 300 persons would be lost before the storm was over.
Hearon turned on the motor from time to time to generate warm air through the bus, and everyone accepted the delay with good nature. One man said, “I imagine they’re talking about us on the radio.” He was right: the local radio was soon reporting a stranded bus, condition of the passengers unknown.
As they waited, Hearon began to feel uneasy. By two o’clock in the afternoon he realized that help might not come in time to prevent grief.
The snow was still falling, and outside the temperature was somewhere between 10 and 20 degrees. About one quarter of his gasoline remained; when that was gone the bus would become an icy tomb. The little food still remaining was saved for the baby.
The best source of food and gas, Hearon decided, was Glenrio, a tiny town on the Texas-New Mexico border, about nine miles to the west. Hearon a husky man, thought he could get there in three or four hours.
Hearon’s Plan
“I’m going up the road,” he announced to the passengers, “to see if we can get some gas and food sent to us. The men can start the motor whenever it gets too cold here; the heater will keep you warm.”
Wearing only his regular uniform, street shoes and gloves, Hearon stepped out into the snow and wind. He hadn’t gone more than 200 yards when he forced back to the bus: the wind was giving him a terrible pain in his right ear. He wound a piece of cloth around his head to cover his ears and neck.
Starting again, he held the top of his jacket with one hand while he breathed inside it. He kept the other hand in a pocket. When the unprotected hand became icy cold, he put it in a pocket and took hold of his jacket top with the other hand.
Deep Snow
The unbroken whiteness of the snow made him squint. Sometimes the drifts covered long stretches of the road. He could find his way only by the telephone poles beside the road. He often slipped, fell and hurt his kness.
Near dusk he came to a stranded car. A couple and their child inside asked him to come in and rest. Hearon sat down and lighted a cigarette with shaking hands. He was exhausted; his eyes ached.
The couple urged him to remain in the safety of the car, but Hearon said his passengers, especially the baby, needed help; he had to try to get it. After five minutes he went on.
While Hearon struggled through the deep snow, the officials at the bus station in Amarillo, telephoning stations along the route, discovered where the bus was stuck, but travel on the roads was impossible. A helicopter was ordered to the scene, but weather conditions forced it back to the airfield.
By seven the wind was blowing colder and sharper, and Hearon – after fighting through the storm for five hours – wanted to stop. But he knew that he couldn’t; he would die from the cold.
With darkness, he had more trouble staying on the road. “sometimes I’d wander off the road and run into a bush or a fence. Then I'd move back. The only thing on my mind was Glenrio – I kept thinking about hot coffee.
“Then about nine o’clock my eyes felt strange. There was a beacon north of Glenrio I’d been using as a guide, but suddenly I stopped seeing it. I couldn’t understand why until I turned my head and saw it with my left eye. Then I knew my right eye had gone blind. I put my hand to it, and it felt like a piece of ice.”
Shortly after that Hearon fell suddenly, for no obvious reason. He pushed himself up. The sight of his left eye was growing less clear. He fell again. He wanted to lie there, but once more he struggled to his feet. Realizing he might fall asleep, he began to slap his face hard. The blows on his face made him feel better.
Lights Ahead
A little after ten his left eye saw tiny spots of light which he knew were in Glenrio. He hadn’t eaten in more than 24 hours, and all he could think of was hot coffee. He forced himself forward. At last he reached the first building, a gas station.
“All I could see was a terrible white glare that hurl my eye,” Hearon says. “But I knew it was a gas station, and it didn’t have coffee.”
He remembered that the next building, about 200 yards up the road, was a diner. Coffee. Turning from the safety to the gas station, he pushed on toward the next lights.
A final Effort
Halfway there he fell sank into the deep snow. He raised into the deep snow. He raised himself a little, then dropped back again. He got to his knees for a few seconds, pushed up and fell. His falls packed the snow in a small circle around him. With his last strength he stood up straight and forced his legs to support him. But they were unable to carry him any farther.
He knew he couldn’t stand many more seconds. When he dropped again, it might be his last fall. He tried to call for help, but his voice wouldn’t rise to a shout. Searching his mind for a means of getting aid, he took a deep breath and whistled – through his teeth. He waited, no longer feeling pain or cold. There was no answer. Taking another breath, he managed to whistle two more times.
A young man sitting in the diner heard the final whistle, opened the door and peered into the snow. He could see nothing, but he called into the darkness: “Do you need help?”
“Yes,” Hearon said, but only a little above a whisper. “I can’t talk.”
“Keep talking and I’ll find you,” the voice answered.
Hearon collapsed as the rescuer arrived. The young man shouted, and two other men ran to help him drag Hearon into Joe Brownlee’s gasoline station. “He looked nearly dead,” says Brownlee. “His face was blue, his eyes closed, his lips swollen. I’ve never seen anyone one look like that.”
A Long Battle
It was 11:15; Hearon had fought through the storm for almost nine hours. The distance from the bus to Glenrio was nearly 12 miles.
Suffering from cold, shock and weariness, Hearon was trembling so much at first he couldn’t say a word. “But when he was able to talk,” recalls one of those present, “he told us about the passengers and the baby. Even in shock his mind was clear about bus. He described exactly where it was, how many passengers were in it, how long they had been without food, how much gas there was when he left.”
Leaving Hearon in the care of his helpers. Brownlee put chains on the wheels of his truck, loaded in food, blackest and gas, and began forcing his way through the snow on Highway 66. He reached the stranded passengers waiting on the bus at two o’clock in the morning.
The motor of the bus was still running, and the passengers were warm and in good spirits. A doctor who examined the passengers later found no ill effects from the long wait. Instead of a disaster, there was nothing more than a long, uncomfortable delay because of Hearon’s courage and determined efforts.
Hearon recovered fast. After four days in the hospital and six days’ rest at home, he resumed his nightly Tucumcari-Amarillo trip. As he climbed aboard his bus one night, a friend asked if he would prefer another kind of work after bad experience in the big snowstorm.
Hearon looked surprised. “Why no,” he said quickly. “Bus-driving is my job.”

Vocabulary
Bus, a large motor vehicle for carrying passengers
Drifts, snow lying in deep piles. Wind blows the snow to form the drifts.
Aboard, on or into a vehicle
Deserted, without the people who are sometime there
Doze, sleep lightly
Skidded, slipped to one side
Budge, move
Generate, produce; bring into existence
Radio, a means of receiving sound sent through the air
Grief, deep sorrow or suffering
Tomb, a grave or place for the dead
Gas, short form of gasoline (used to make buses and other vehicles run)
Husky, big and strong
Gloves, covering for the hands
Jacket, a short coat
Squint, look through partly closed eyes
Exhausted, very tired
Ached, were in continuous pain
Helicopter, a kind of flying machine
Beacon, a strong light used for guiding or warning
Obvious, easily seen or understood
Slap, strike with the open hand
Glare, very bright light
Diner, a small restaurant
Peered, looked closely
Collapsed, fell down; lost all strength and could not go on
Swollen, increased in size; much larger than usual
Weariness, tiredness
Recalls, remembers
Truck, a motor vehicle for carrying heavy loads
Disaster, sudden event that causes great trouble or suffering
Resumed, began again

History as Tree Rings Tell It

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History as Tree Rings Tell It

This is a true story of an astronomer who learned more about the sun by looking around him than by looking up into the sky. As a result, he established a new science.
The name of the science is dendrochronology. It deals with growth-rings of trees.
The rings offer clear records of the weather of the past and give us new information on human history.
Growth Patterns
A tree grows well in favorable years and slowly in years of drought or other hardship. The change from good years to bad years leaves a pattern of rings in a cross section of the tree trunk. For instance, three good years followed by three years of drought form three widely separated rings which are close together.
The date of a serious drought can be determined by counting from the present year’s ring of a growing tree. Suppose a drought was 50 years ago. The we find its mark by counting the rings in from the bark. There will be 50 rings before we reach the closely packed rings.
An old timber we find somewhere may have the same pattern of closely packed rings. But this time the pattern appears near the outer edge instead of 50 rings in from the bark. Its earlier growth rings carry the weather farther back and reveal other patterns that are like the outer rings of timbers even older. Here is the perfect record of the climate in the past.
Unchanging Climate
From this record we learn that our climate is not changing. We could establish this information in other way. Detailed weather reports in the United States go back fewer than 100 years. But oak trees in the Middle West give us a record back to the year 1536. Pine trees in the Northwest provide information back to 1268.
Studying such evidence, we learn that there has been no change in the amount of precipitation for about 650 years. The trees record droughts of centuries ago. The droughts, though longer and drier than any we have known in recent years, were always followed by plentiful rainfall.
Dendrochronologist also have discovered that a drought affecting all parts of the country at one time has probably never occurred. There was a drought in the Middle West in 1675, but it was very wet in the Northwest that year and the southwest had its usual rainfall.
Just before the American Revolution, from 1772 to 1774, the Middle West had another long dry period. The Northwest was rather dry, too. But two of those three years were splendid growing years in the Southwest.
Trees and Weather
The father of this science of dendrochronology was Andrew Ellicott Douglass, an astronomer, born in Vermont and later a professor at the university of Arizona. He was a student of sunspots and needed weather records of earlier centuries.
One day he had an idea: “Why not find out from the trees?” these were the steps in his reasoning: sunspots are a sign of storms on the surface of the sun. the sunspots are known to affect the earth’s weather. Weather affects plant growth. Thus trees might furnish a record of weather and therefore a record of sunspots centuries ago.
So Douglass began to study tree rings, and in 1904 he discovered the principle which was to make a science of what began as a simple idea. He measured rings of trees freshly cut near Flagstaff, Arizona. Twenty-one rings in from the bark, indicating 1883, he saw a group of thing rings. On an old stump, he recognized the same rings: but they were only 11 rings in from the bark. This, he reasoned, indicated that the stump was left from a tree cut in 1894.
Important Discovery
The owner of the stump was asked when the trees in that area were cut down. “In 1894,” he answered .
Then Douglass found that by comparing ring patterns he could trace history back from living trees to trees long dead. Where the story stopped in one tree he could find it continuing in a stump, in the timbers of an old cabin or in old logs preserved in swamps or lakes.
But even trees still standing carry the story back quite far living cedar trees in eastern Tennessee started growing a full century before Columbus. California has giant evergreen trees still alive after 30 centuries. There is a special tool which cuts out a smell, narrow section from the bark to the center of the tree. The rings of an old tree can thus be studied without destroying the tree.
Universities are doing research in dendrochronology. Entomologists have used the science to learn the growth of forests. From trees climatologists have learned a large number of facts not known before.
Trees and History
Archaeologists use the science of dendrochronology to determine the age of ruins and to study ancient peoples. Here, for instance, is one bit of history that trees helped uncover. Near the little town of Thoreau, New Mexico, you find the Chaco Canyon, treeless and sandy. You can drive for miles and never meet a human being. Yet vast ruined pueblos suggest that at least 100,000 people once lived there.
How long ago? Timbers preserved in the ruins tell us that Chaco Canyon was well peopled in 1066. It probably remained so until the middle of the 12th century. Then, the record shows, the population left.
Why? After a study of the situation, Douglass concluded that lack of trees caused the people to leave. Forests originally grew to the edge of the canyon. Poles used by the Indians for building purposes were from pine trees. Pine forests apparently grew near the place where the Indians built their pueblos, for they had no beasts of burden. Today the nearest pine forests are 60 miles away.
Such a large population needed great quantities of wood, and hence the forests were gradually destroyed. As the trees were cut down and used, the ground no longer held moisture. Water from the rains rushed through the canyon, making it deeper and wider. A man-made desert finally remained where fields had been, and the people departed. That’s the story of the Chaco Canyon as told by tree records.
Today there are many students of dendrochronology. Following the example of the founder of the science, they are working harder than ever before to discover any new knowledge that tree rings may reveal.

Vocabulary
Astronomer, a person who studies astronomy. The science dealing with the sun, moon, stars and other heavenly bodies.
Dendrochronology, the science dealing with the growth-rings of tress
Drought, a long period of dry weather when plant growth is affected by the lack of water
Cross section, a cut made across something.
Tree trunk, the main body of a tree. Branches grow out from the trunk of a tree.
Timber, a log;  any large piece of wood prepared for use in building
Climate, the weather conditions at a place over a period of time
Precipitation, rain, snow and other forms of water falling from the sky
Dendrochronologists, scientists in the field of dendrochronology
Sunspots, signs of storms on the surface of the sun
Stump, the part of a tree which remains above the ground after the tree has been cut down.
Swamps, wet, soft land
Before Columbus, before 1492, the year in which Christopher Columbus discovered America
Research, careful search for new facts in a field of knowledge
Entomologists, scientists in the field of entomology, the study of insects
Climatologists, scientists in the field of climatology, which deals with climate and the conditions that affect climate
Archaeologists, scientist in the field of archaeology, the study of ancient people and their way of life
Canyon, a deep, narrow valley, often with a stream flowing through it
Pueblos, villages of Indians houses built for large numbers of people
Beasts of burden, animals used to carry things
Moisture, slight wetness

Our New Telephone (Classical short story shows old people’s reaction to old telephone)

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Our New Telephone (Classical short story shows old people’s reaction to old telephone)

“I’ve been thinking, Clinton,” my mother said one evening as she and my father sat reading, “that almost everybody else has a telephone now. We ought to have one, too.”
“Not in this house. I don’t want one of those gadgets here,” declared my father as he put down his pipe.
“Why, Clinton?” asked my mother. “What’s the matter with having a telephone?”
My father sat still for a moment and then gave a loud sneeze. “Get out of here!” he demanded, blowing his nose. “You know cat fur always gives me nose trouble. I hate cats. They do nothing but spread germs around.”
“Punk is a clean cat, Clinton, and he doesn't have any germs,” replied my mother. “And please try not to be against a telephone,”
Father Says No
“I’m not against it,” said my father, “so long we don’t have one here.”
“But, Clinton,” my mother continued, “Ruth’s growing up, you know, and all the other girls have telephone. It isn’t as if we wanted to make a lot of calls to cost us money. It’s so the young people  can tell Ruth. And, Clinton, you don’t have to have a thing to do with it; it can just be Ruth’s and mine.”
“It can belong to Shem and Japheth,” said my father calmly, “so long as I don’t have to pay for it. But the way things happen – it won’t be shem and Japheth’s; it’ll be mine. And I won’t have my name in the telephone book. I have no wish to call attention to myself.”
“We won’t use your name at all, Clinton. It can be listed in my name, and don’t worry about the money. I can always get it somewhere.”
When our telephone was installed, my father paid no attention to it unless he thought we were talking too long; then he told us to stop. Once it rang after we had gone to bed. I ran downstairs to answer it, and when I came upstairs again my father called out. “What’s the matter? Is the house on fire?”
“No,” I answered, “It was Richard DeNormandie.”
“Oh,” he said, “is Denormandie’s house on fire?”
“No, Papa, nobody’s house on fire,” I said, feeling very grow-up and important. “He simply called and asked to go to a dance,”
“I knew it had to be something urgent,” my father said. “What prevents him from asking you in the daytime?”
There came a day when my father was troubled. At the factory where he worked, he learned that Dan Weymouth was going to retire. This worried my father, for he thought perhaps the company was forcing Dan to retire. “Dan’s been there only a bit longer than I have, you know,” he said to us at supper that evening.
“I know, Clinton,” replied my mother, “but can’t you try to eat your meal?”
My father pushed back his chair from the table and stood up. “No,” he said, “I can’t. I’m too troubled. If I knew that Dan was going to retire of his own choice, it would be all right.”
Mother’s Suggestion
“Well, Clinton, you’re probably imagining things, but if you are going to worry so much, won’t you please – just to make me happy – call Dan on the telephone and ask him about it?”
“Oh, no,” answered my father. “I’m not worried as much as that.”
“Think a moment, Clinton. A telephone call costs only a nickel. Is your peace of mind worth a nickel?”
My father looked sadly out the window. “Well, if it’s good news it’ll still be good news tomorrow, and if it’s bad news we’ll pay a nickel to get it quicker.”
My mother did not stop to learn anything further. She hurried to the telephone book hanging beside the telephone on the wall between the stairs to the cellar and the kitchen door.
My father sat down in his reading chair and looked at the back of his hands.
Soon my mother came back with the book, “Here’s Dan’s telephone number, Clinton,” she said.
Father’s Experience
After a moment my father went to the phone, called the number and cleared his throat several times. There was a click at the other end of the line, and my father’s hand trembled a little. “Hello,” he said. “Is that you, Dan?” He paused. “Yes, I thought it was; it sounds like your voice. Can you hear me, or shall I speak louder?”
Apparently Mr. Weymouth could hear all right, so my father continued. "Dan, I’d like to find out what’s happening at the factory. They say you’re going to leave.”
Good News
A short pause followed while my father listened. Suddenly his face became brighter and he said eagerly, “ You say you’re going to retire because you want to. Well, Dan, I’m glad to hear you say so. I’m very glad to glad to hear you say so. That’s all I wanted to know, Dan. Thank you Good-by.”
My father then took off his glasses and began to clean them carefully.
“A telephone,” he said, “is a remarkable invention. I’ve never said it wasn’t. I could hear Dan as clearly as if he were down in our cellar. But we’ll brave to wait and see how telephones, with all their clicking and ringing of bells, will affect the hearing of people in years to come.”
Vocabulary
Sneeze, a sudden, uncontrollable burst of breath the nose and mouth
Germs, living things in the air, water and ground, too small for the human eye to see. Germs may cause disease
Shem and Japheth, persons in the Bible
Installed, placed in position and made ready for use
Papa, father
Urgent, requiring immediate action or attention
Retire, give up one’s work or position, usually after reaching a certain age
Nickel, a U.S. coin worth five cents.
Cellar, a room beneath a house, used for storing things
Phone, short form for telephone
Click, a short, sharp sound
Eagerly, full of desire to know something or do something
Remarkable, very unusual; not ordinary

How the Horse Came to the American West

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How the Horse Came to the American West

Think back three thousand years to the deserts and plains of Arabia and of Barbary, famous throughout the ancient world for their beautiful, spirited horses. Trading ships from Phoenicia, at the eastern end of the Mediterranean sea, carry iron, spices, fruits and horses to Spain. Long centuries pass. The strong, lively Arabian horse has become the horse of the Spaniard.
Now come to the American West. It is the West of the Indians and the buffalo. But throughout the whole area there is not a single horse. The Indians of the plains – Pawnee, Comanche, Sioux and all the others – move slowly on foot. That is what the American West was like until a few hundred years ago – a horseless land.
Now look at the west in the 19th century. what a great change has occurred! The plains are alive with wild horses which, in some places, outnumber the buffalo. A million manes wave in the air on the deserts and the prairies. The Indian peoples of the plains, who were formerly earth-bound men on foot, are now nations of fighters on horseback – perhaps the finest cavalry in the world.
It was a change of huge proportions and far-reaching effects – a wonder of modern times. With the horse came the whole splendid drama of the West, which is a mighty part of America’s history and of her people’s character.
In 1519 the Spanish conqueror Hernando Cortez landed in Mexico, bringing with him the first horses that ever set foot on the soil of North America. In 1540 Francisco Vasquez Coronado rode northward across the Rio Grande, the present boundary between Mexico and Texas, with about 260 mounted men. They explored the unknown West as far as the present state of Kansas. During their explorations, the Spaniards lost horses, and it may be that these became the first wild horses in North America.
If the horses had not established itself in great numbers before the frontiersmen and settlers came, the West would have been far different. Most of its way of life and its place in literature and art were due to the horse – the horse that came with Spaniard.
This was the desert horse of the Phoenician and the Arab. Of fine Arabian blood, the hard and firmly built animal was thrown into the hot, dry American Southwest.
There it became the most enduring and the most beautiful of all the horses in the world. It lived surprisingly well where the big northern varieties of horse would have died. The rapid increase of the wild droves was far beyond all expectations.
And this increase brought a new way of life to the west as horse travel took the place of foot travel for nation after nation of Indians. See what happened to the Sioux who, two centuries ago, were a forest tribe living near the headwaters of the great Mississippi River.
Unable to defend themselves against the Ojibwas or Chippewa, the Sioux were driven out of the forestland to the plains. To them came the first wild horses, which were spreading steadily to the north.
Suddenly the Sioux were a nation on horseback. Suddenly they, who had been pushed out of their homeland, became the most feared cavalry of the northern plains.
With millions of buffalo to sustain them, and thousands of horses, the Sioux became a proud and powerful nation. They were lords of the vast area from the present state of Minnesota to the Rocky Mountains and as far such as Nebraska.
Great Herds
It is generally believed that if white settlers had not come into the plains, horses would probably have outnumbered the buffalo. And guesses at the number of buffalo start at 50,000,000. Early travelers saw vast droves of horses as far south as Texas and northern Mexico. An explorer in the North reported that “a single herd traveled from dawn to dusk in passing a given point.”
On the western plains, with the passing of generation after generation, the horse lost its beauty and size. The kind of horse later used by cowboys was smaller and less enduring. Again and again, however, there were throwbacks. The throwbacks (called mustangs), larger, faster and handsomer than ordinary horses, became famous.
In the West perhaps 6000 wild horses still remains  - a mere handful when we remember the millions in the past. There is some mustang blood in these animals, which are now called horses. They live in small bands, chiefly in the states of Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon, and Nevada.
But the real mustang – the wild horse that brought change in the life of the West – has gone forever from the plains.
We should not forget him, for he gave us the splendid, colorful West, with all that it has meant to the lives of men. It was the West of the red horseman, the wagon train, the vast cattle range, the cowboy – the West we love to read about in history.
Vocabulary
Spices, substances used to flavor food
Buffalo, large, hairy wild animal that lived on the plains of North America.
Manes, the long hair on the nicks of certain animal, such as the horse
Prairies, large areas of treeless, grassy plains
Cavalry, soldiers who fight on horseback.
Drama, a series of events that stir the imagination
Conqueror, one who conquers. To conquer is to take possession of something by force or to defeat an enemy.
Explored, traveled in places not well known to learn more about them
Frontiersmen, people who lived on the frontier. The frontier is the farthest part of a country that has been settled. Beyond the frontier is unsettled land.
Literature, the writings of a country, particularly those that have a lasting value because of their beauty
Enduring, lasting
Droves, herds
Headwaters, the small streams that are the sources of a river
Sustain, provide the necessities of life. The buffalo sustained the Indian by providing meat for food and skins for clothing and shelter.
Dusk, the beginning of darkness in the evening
Generation, a period of about 30 years
Cowboys, men who ride horseback while taking care of cattle
Throwback, horses (or other animals) with features like those of earlier types

A test of True Love

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 A test of True Love

Six minutes to six said the clock above the information desk in New York’s Grand Central Station. The tall young army lieutenant lifted his face, narrowed his eyes and noted the time.
His heart was beating so hard it seemed to shake him. In six minutes he would see the woman who had occupied much of his thoughts for the past 13 months, the woman he had never seen, yet whose written words had meant a great deal to him.
Lieutenant Blandford remembered one day in particular, during the worst of the fighting. When his plane had been surrounded by enemy plans. In one of his letters he had confessed to her that he often felt fear, and only a few days before this battle he had received her answer:
“Of course there will be times when you are afraid … all brave men feel the same way, especially in battle. The next time you have doubts about yourself, try to imagine you can hear my voice saying to you: “Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I shall fear no evil …’ ”he had remembered, and it had given him new strength.
Watching for Her
Now he was going to hear her real voice. It was four minutes to six.
A girl passed near him, and Lieutenant Bland ford looked closely. She was wearing a flower, but it was the wrong kind. He was to recognize his friend by a little red rose which she had promised to wear. Besides, this girl was only about 18, and Hollis Meynell had told him she was 30. “What does that matter?” he had answered. “I’m 32.” He was really only 29.
How it Started
His mind went back to the book he had read in training camp – one of the many thousands of books donated to the army during the first months of World War II. Of human bondage was the title of the book, and throughout its pages there were notes in a woman’s handwriting. He had never believed that a woman could understand a man’s thought so well.
Her name was inside the cover of the book: Hollis Meynell. He had found her address in New York telephone book. He had written a letter and she had answered the next day his army group had started overseas, but he and Hollis Meynell had continued writing to each other.
For 13 months she had written to him regularly. Even when his letters didn’t arrive, she wrote anyway. Now he believed that she loved him.
But he had refused all his pleas for her photograph. She had explained: “If your feeling for me has any reality, my books won’t matter. Suppose I’m beautiful. I’d always have the idea that you were mainly influenced by a pretty face, and that kind of love would displease me. Suppose I’m plain (and you must admit this is more likely), then I’d always fear that you were only writing to me because you were lonely and had no other correspondent. No, don’t ask for my picture. When you come to New York, you shall see me and then you can decide what you think of me.”
The Rose
One minute to six . . . he lighted another cigarette. And then lieutenant Blandford’s heart leaped.
A young woman was coming toward him, her figure was tall and slender; her light hair lay back from her ears in waves. Her eyes were as blue as flowers; her lips and chin had a gentle firmness. In her pale-green suit she was like springtime itself.
He started toward her, for getting to notice she did not have a rose. As he moved, she smiled slightly. “Going my way, soldier?” she murmured.
Another Woman
He took one step closer.
Then he saw the woman with the rose.
She was standing almost directly behind the girl – a woman well past 40, her graying hair pulled under a worn hat. She was rather heavy; she had thick legs and wore flat shoes. But there was no mistake about the rose on her rumpled coat.
The girl in the green suit was walking quickly away.
Blandford’s attention was suddenly divided between the two. He felt a strong urge to follow the girl, yet he also had a deep longing for the woman whose spirit had truly given him great courage and strength. And there she stood. He could see that her pale, plump face was gentle and kind; her eyes were warm and friendly.
Lieutenant Blandford did not hesitate. His fingers held the worn copy of Human Bondage, which was to show who he was. This would not be love, but it would be something precious. It would be a friendship for which he had been and would always be grateful.
He stood straight, saluted and held the book toward the woman; but as he spoke he thought how different she was from the girl he had expected.
“I’m Lieutenant John Blandford, and you – you are Miss Meynell. I’m so glad you could meet me. May – I take you to dinner?”
A smile appeared on the woman’s face. “I don’t know who you are, young man,” she answered. “That young lady in the green suit – she asked me to wear this rose on my coat. She said that if you asked me to go out with you I was to tell you she’s waiting for you in that restaurant across the street. She said it was a test of some kind.”
Vocabulary
Lieutenant, an officer in the United States Army
Confessed, admitted
Yea, truly; indeed. Yea and the words which follow it are from a holy book called the Bible.
Donated, given
Telephone book, a book listing people’s names, addresses and telephone numbers
Pleas, appeals; requests
Lonely, without friends; without companions
Slender, thin; not fat
 Chin, the part of the face below the mouth
Rumpled, not smooth; not pressed
Plump, rounded; fat in a pleasing way
Hesitate, pause; show uncertainty, doubt or unwillingness

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